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It sets a new standard for future studies on the politics and culture of sports in the region. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Publishing With Us.

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FAQ Policy. About this book This collection interrogates sports in Latin America as a key terrain in which nation is defined and populations are interpellated through emotionally charged practices state policy, media representations, and sports play itself by professionals, national teams and amateurs of inclusion and exclusion.

Show all. The politics of sport have accompanied the processes of urbanization and modernization, and shaped national, gendered, and class identities in Latin America since late nineteenth century. Similarly, in Peru, Catholicism has been merged with Incan religious practices to create a hybrid form of Catholicism. More recently, there has been an increase in religious missionaries primarily from the U. West African culture was imported to Latin America by colonial European countries via slavery.

The influence of these forceably relocated cultures is most prominent in the Caribbean, northern South America e. In addition to bringing a unique blend of cultural beliefs and practices to Latin America, West African slaves represented a distinct appearance that was unlike the indigenous or European groups already in Latin America. Consequently, their social status was often marginalized. West African culture has persevered in Latin America, and its influences include language, religion, and music.

For example, samba music, the lively, beat-driven dance music associated with Brazilian culture infused West African drum beats with the sounds and instruments of Portuguese music. One should consider also the geographic region from which an athlete comes in addition to the country. This is particularly true in South America, where countries such as Argentina, Chile and Peru encompass large geographic and cultural distances.

Geographical barriers such as the Andes and Amazonian basin that have created many of the political borders share common cultures, which span several modern countries. Moreover, cultural regions in Latin America are often more effectively defined in terms of their association with either European i. To illustrate, two young professional soccer players from Argentina playing for the same professional team and who are having trouble getting along with each other might be assumed by a sport psychology consultant to share many cultural traits.

Their problems are likely a result of where in Argentina the two athletes are from. In Latin America, mestizoization involves various combinations of indigenous groups, Europeans, and West Africans. The resulting mix of cultures, religions, lifestyles and worldviews has created a unique amalgamated culture combining many of the cultural influences discussed above. Working with mestizo athletes can be challenging, as their beliefs and values might reflect multiple cultural influences to varying degrees.

Again, this information reinforces the need to consider the individual athlete as well as their level of acculturation. This challenge is made more difficult by the U. Awareness, not Universality. Earlier, we mentioned that a sport psychology consultant might expect an Ecuadorian athlete to have fewer communication issues in the U. Further, certain geographic regions within each country might be more or less likely to speak a certain language. Therefore, as indicated in the applied sport psychology literature e. We believe that gender should also be included in this list.

National Center for Education Statistics, In order to truly understand a Latin American athlete, the sport psychology consultant must consider these moderating dimensions of Latin American culture. A good example illustrating the importance of these dimensions to sport psychology consulting pertains to athlete assessment.

Much of sport psychology assessment apart from the intake interview is based on paper and pencil measures.

However, as Montgomery and Orozco demonstrated, use of English-based psychological assessments such as the MMPI can erroneously pathologize Latin Americans who speak English as a second language. Moreover, very few sport psychology measures have been translated or validated in Spanish or other languages spoken by Latin Americans. Clearly, the need for such assessments in sport psychology in the U.

For the sake of brevity, we presented only the cultural similarities among Latin American cultural groups that are most salient to sport psychology consulting. In doing so, we admit that this information can only loosely be applied to an individual athlete representing a specific Latin American culture. Therefore, we encourage sport psychology consultants who might work with any of these cultural groups to refer to the sources used for each section to develop a keener understanding of each culture. From a spiritual standpoint, an amalgamation of Roman Catholic and indigenous, West African or folk religions are the predominant norm.

From a cultural values perspective, Latin Americans, in general, focus on the family i. The focus on family lends itself to a family systems approach to sport psychology, which is not commonly used by sport psychology consultants. Respeto creates a dual set of expectations, as it is determined in part by age, gender, SES and authority Dana, Much of the Latin American belief system and social standing reflect male-dominated i. Hence, they may attempt to solve their issues on their own and be reticent to see a consultant. Several factors related to fostering communication and therapeutic relationships among Latin American athletes are of particular relevance to sport psychology consulting.

In other words, the effects of culture on the individual athlete should be considered in conjunction with any presenting concerns an athlete might have. However, given the current state of multicultural training in sport psychology programs Martens et al. It is more likely that they will attempt to address cultural issues within their already existing theoretical framework. There are several key multicultural issues that are important for providing quality and culturally sensitive sport psychology services to Latin American athletes.

In general, Latin American athletes perceive that their psychological problems related to sport are external to themselves and are likely to shift responsibility to someone else e.

U.S sports culture

However, this perception also tends to minimize the ownership of the problem and potential for self-improvement in the athlete. Rogerian and Existentialist approaches might also prove unsuccessful given the focus away from self-ownership. Another important issue is spirituality. Latin American athletes are likely to involve spiritual beliefs in their approach to their problems Dana, The provision of services to Latin American athletes might also be influenced by an underlying suspicion of white North American or European sport psychology consultants.

Language is another cultural concern. Whenever possible, Latin American athletes should be provided with a sport psychology consultant who speaks their first language. However, as Martens et al. This point further highlights the need for current sport psychology consultants to be culturally aware and sensitive, and for a conscious effort to recruit and train more culturally different sport psychology consultants.

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There is an increased need for culturally knowledgeable and sensitive sport psychology consulting for Latin American athletes. From an understanding and awareness perspective it is important to also consider the historical context of the cultural attributes among Latin Americans. Many factors such as geography, SES and gender can affect culture and its effects on athletes. We encourage sport psychology consultants to adopt a multicultural approach to working with athletes from Latin America and other culturally different athletes.

Hopefully, this paper will spurn other sport psychology researchers and consultants to expand the literature on Latin American athletes and its application to consulting work with these athletes. Questionable sensitivity: A comment on Lee and Rotella. The Sport Psychologist, 7, BBC News , April. Factfile: Roman Catholics around the world. Berry, J. Ethnic identity in plural societies. Knight Eds. Fields of broken dreams: Latinos in baseball [Electronic version]. Brown, M. Counselor supervision: Cross-cultural perspectives.

Ponterotto, J. Casas, L. Alexander Eds.

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Futbol!: Soccer History and Politics in Latin America

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Castro, F. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 6, Cuellar, I. An acculturation scale for Mexican American normal and clinical populations. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science, 2, Dana, R. Multicultural assessment perspectives for professional psychology.

Evans, L. Patient requests: Correlates and therapeutic implications for Hispanic, Black and Caucasian patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, Foster, D. Culture and customs of Argentina. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


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Dominicans in the Dugout: Latin America’s Role in American Baseball

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